Dying oceans among perils of climate change

Philippine butterfly fish or panda butterfly fish, Chaetodon adiergastos is found in the Pacific Ocean

Sometimes called the Philippine butterfly fish or panda butterfly fish, Chaetodon adiergastos is found in the Pacific Ocean. New research shows how coral reef bleaching is putting stress on fish like these — and changing their behavior. (Photo: Sally Keith)

A research team found that when water temperatures heat up for corals, fish “tempers” cool down, providing the first clear evidence of coral bleaching serving as a trigger for rapid change in the behavior of reef fish.

The researchers found how the iconic butterfly fish, considered to be sensitive indicators of reef health, offer an early warning sign that reef fish populations are in trouble.

Mass coral bleaching causes population declines and mortality of coral reef species yet its impacts on behavior are largely unknown. A three-year global coral bleaching event that began in 2014, was the third ever documented.

Multiple coral reef ecosystems around the world experienced severe bleaching in back-to-back years, including areas like Guam, where corals bleached every year from 2013 to 2017.

As of the end of May 2017, the third global coral bleaching event most likely ended but will remain the longest, most widespread, and possibly the most damaging coral bleaching event on record.

It affected more reefs than any previous global bleaching event and was worse in some locales, such as the Great Barrier Reef, Kiribati, and Jarvis Island.

Heat stress during this event also caused mass bleaching in several reefs that never bleached before, including the northernmost Great Barrier Reef.

The international team of scientists spent more than 600 hours underwater observing butterfly fish over a two-year period encompassing the unprecedented mass coral bleaching event of 2016. Led by marine ecologist Sally Keith of Lancaster University, the team examined 17 reefs across the central Indo-Pacific in Japan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.

During the initial data collection, the researchers were unaware that the catastrophic bleaching event was on the horizon. Once underway, the researchers realized that this serendipitous “natural experiment” placed them in a unique position to see how fish changed their behavior in response to large-scale bleaching disturbance.

Coral reefs around the world have died from high ocean temperatures that lingered for an unprecedented three years, in a process known as ‘bleaching’ because the animals lose their color in response to the heat much as humans experience a runny nose due to fever.

The team sprang into action to repeat their field observations, collecting a total of 5,259 encounters between individuals of 38 different butterfly fish species. Within a year after the bleaching event, it was clear that, although the same number of butterfly fish continued to reside on the reefs, they were behaving very differently.

“We observed that aggressive behavior had decreased in butterfly fish by an average of two thirds, with the biggest drops observed on reefs where bleaching had killed off the most coral,” said Keith. “We think this is because the most nutritious coral was also the most susceptible to bleaching, so the fish moved from a well-rounded diet to the equivalent of eating only lettuce leaves—it was only enough to survive rather than to thrive.”

Early warning

“This matters because butterfly fishes are often seen as the ‘canaries of the reef,'” said Nate Sanders, director of UVM’s Environmental Program and professor in the Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources. “Due to their strong reliance on coral, they are often the first to suffer after a disturbance event.”

Such changes in behavior may well be the driver behind more obvious changes such as declining numbers of fish individuals and species. The finding has the potential to help explain the mechanism behind population declines in similarly disrupted ecosystems around the world.

By monitoring the fishes’ behavior, “we might get an early warning sign of bigger things to come,” said co-author Erika Woolsey of Stanford University. And the new work shows that animals can adjust to catastrophic events in the short term through flexible behavior, “but these changes may not be sustainable in the longer-term,” said co-author Andrew Baird of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University.

“UVM is known for its work on how climate change is affecting forests, mountains, and of course Lake Champlain. This work goes beyond that and highlights the impacts of ongoing climate change on biodiversity in the ocean,” says Nate Sanders.

Sanders’ role in the new reef fish research started — surprisingly — with ants. “I wanted to know how the behavior of individuals scales up to influence entire collections of species,” he explained. “Do interactions between individuals matter for entire communities and ecosystems? A few years ago, Sally Keith and I began talking about whether what I know about ants applied to what she knows about coral reef fish. And thus began an amazing collaboration.”

“It’s not just that we’ve documented a climate change effect on these reefs,” said Sanders, a community ecologist and fellow in UVM’s Gund Institute for Environment. “It’s important that we’re beginning to understand why these changes happen, and are building the knowledge to try to predict when, and where, these kinds of changes may happen in other ecosystems in the future.”


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