“The Pledge is constitutional,” Judge Carlos Bea wrote in the 2-1 ruling. “The Pledge of Allegiance serves to unite our vast nation through the proud recitation of some of the ideals upon which our Republic was founded.”
The court ruled 3-0 on the money motto.
See the complete rulings (pdf format).
Sacramento atheist Michael Newdow filed the challenges, arguing that the references to God disrespect his beliefs.
Mathew Staver, dean of Liberty University School of Law, commented: “The words ‘In God We Trust’ are part of our American heritage…. America was founded upon religious principles and the belief in God. Mere expression of our heritage cannot establish a religion. A public acknowledgement of God is not an establishment of religion.”
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